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Shinkolobwe: Ikirombe cyo muri RD Congo cyacukuwemo uranium yavuyemo ibisasu kirimbuzi byarekuriwe ku mijyi ya Nagasaki na Hiroshima

  

tariki 06 z'ukwezi kwa munani, inzogera ziraza kuvuzwa muri Hiroshima mu Buyapani bibuka imyaka 75 ishize igisasu kirimbuzi kibaguyeho.
Uruhare rwa DR Congo mu gucura ibisasu kirimbuzi byarekuriwe ku mijyi ya Nagasaki na Hiroshima rwagizwe ibanga imyaka myinshi cyane, ariko ingaruka z'uruhare rwayo n'uyu munsi aho zarekuriwe baracyazumva.

"Ijambo Shinkolobwe rinyuzuza umubabaro n'agahinda," - biravugwa na Susan Williams, umunyamategeko wo muri Institute of Commonwealth Studies mu Bwongereza.

Yongeraho ati: "Ntabwo ari ijambo rishimishije, ni ijambo mpuza n'umubabaro utavugwa n'agahinda".

Si benshi bazi Shinkolobwe aho ari ho. Ariko iki ni ikirombe gito kiri mu majyepfo y'intara ya Katanga muri Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo, cyagize uruhare muri kimwe mu bikorwa bikabije ubugome no kwica byabayeho mu mateka.

Kure muri kilometero 12,000, tariki 06 z'ukwezi kwa munani, inzogera ziraza kuvuzwa muri Hiroshima mu Buyapani bibuka imyaka 75 ishize igisasu kirimbuzi kibaguyeho. Abashyitsi bakomeye n'abarokotse baraba bateranye bibuka abapfuye kubera ubumara n'umuriro wabaguyeho. Baracana amatara ibihumbi y'urumuri rw'amahoro bayashyire ku ruzi rwa Motoyasu. Nyuma y'iminsi itatu imihango nk'iyi izaba n'i

Nta mihango ikomeye, iteganyijwe muri DRC. Nyamara ibi bihugu byombi bihujwe mu buryo budashidikanywaho n'ibi bisasu kirimbuzi, byagize ingaruka n'uyu munsi zicyumvikana.

"Iyo tuvuze ibitero bya Hiroshima na Nagasaki, ntitujya tuvuga Shinkolobwe," - biravugwa na Isaiah Mombilo ukuriye Sosiyete Sivile y'Abanyecongo muri Afurika y'Epfo (CCSSA). Ati: "Hari igice cy'intambara ya kabiri y'isi cyibagiranye kiratakara."

Ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe - niho havuye hafi uranium yose yakoreshejwe mukiswe 'umushinga wa Manhattan', ahacuriwe ibisasu kirimbuzi byajugunywe ku Buyapani mu 1945.

Gusa inkuru y'iki kirombe ntiyarangiranye n'izi bombe. Umusanzu wacyo mu gukora ibi bisasu bise Little Boy na Fat Man byahinduye amateka agana ahabi ya DR Congo n'intambara zitahashize. N'uyu munsi umurage w'iki kirombe uboneka mu buzima n'imibereho y'abagituriye.

Susan Williams wacukumbuye uruhare rwa Shinkolobwe mu gitabo cye yise 'Spies in the Congo' ati: "Ni amage akomeje". Yemeza ko bikenewe kwemeza ko kumaranira kugenzura iki kirombe kw'ibihugu rutura byo mu burengerazuba bw'isi bifite uruhare mu bibazo bya Congo.

Mombilo nawe ari guharanira ko hamenyekana uruhare rwa Congo mu byabaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y'isi, ndetse n'umugogoro iki gihugu kikoreye kugeza ubu kubera ibyo.

Uranium yavaga mu kirombe cya Shinkolobwe yahunitswe na Amerika ibasha kubaka ibisasu kirimbuzi byarekuriwe ku Buyapani mu 1945
Insiguro y'isanamu,

Uranium yavaga mu kirombe cya Shinkolobwe yahunitswe na Amerika ibasha kubaka ibisasu kirimbuzi byarekuriwe ku Buyapani mu 1945

Mu 2016, CCSSA yahuje impirimbanyi, abanyamateka, abasesanguzi n'abana b'abagizweho ingaruka n'ibi bisasu kirimbuzi, bose bo muri DR Congo no mu Buyapani.

Mombilo ati: "Turashaka kugarura amateka ya Shinkolobwe, kugira ngo isi iyamenye".

Kure ya Africa

Amateka ya Shinkolobwe atangira mu 1915 ubwo mu butaka bwaho havumburwa Uranium, mu gihe Congo yari mu bukoloni bw'Ububiligi. Uranium ntabwo yari ikintu gikenewe cyane ku isoko icyo gihe.

Uburyo iteye bwavugwaga n'Abadage nk'ibuye ridafite akamaro. Icyo gihe ahubwo, kompanyi y'Ababiligi yitwa Union Minière niyo yacukuraga radium muri ako gace, ikinyabutabire cyari kimaze igihe gito kigaragajwe n'abahanga Marie na Pierre Curie.

Kugeza mu 1938 havumbuwe uburyo bwo gutubura imbaraga kirimbuzi, nibwo agaciro ka uranium kamenyekanye. Amaze kumenya ubwo buvumbuzi, Albert Einstein yahise yandikira Perezida wa Amerika Franklin D Roosevelt, amugira inama ko uranium yakoreshwa mu gukora ingufu zidasanzwe - yewe no gukora igisasu kirimbuzi.

Mu 1942, abahanga bo mu gisirikare cya Amerika bemeje kugura ingano ishoboka ya uranium bagamije kuyikoresha mu 'umushinga wa Manhattan'. Nubwo hari ibirombe muri Colorado na Canada ntahandi ku isi hari uranium ingana n'iyo muri Congo.

Tom Zoellner wasuye Shinkolobwe agamije gukora inyandiko yitwa 'Uranium - War, Energy, and the Rock that Shaped the World' agira ati: "imiterere ya Shinkolobwe ntisanzwe. Nta kindi kirombe wabonamo uranium nyayo yirunze hamwe. Nta kintu nk'iki cyari cyarigize kiboneka."

Ibirombe byo muri Amerika na Canada byabonwaga nk'ahantu "heza" iyo amabuye yacukuwe abasha gutanga 0.03% ya uranium. Shinkolobwe yo, ibyahacukuwe byatangaga 65% ari uranium. Amabuye yitwaga ibisigazwa bitakwitabwaho mu gutunganywa, nayo ubwayo yabaga afite 20% ya uranuim.

Mu bwumvikane na Union Minière - bwakozwe n'Abongereza, bari bafite imigabane ya 30% muri iyi kompanyi - Amerika yabonye toni 1,200 za uranium yo muri Congo, bajyanye babika ku kirwa cya Staten kiri mu majyepfo y'umujyi wa New York. Izindi toni 3,000 bazibitse ku butaka hafi aho muri Shinkolobwe.

Ariko ntibyari bihagije. Ba 'enjeniyeri' b'igisirikare cya Amerika boherejwe gukamura iki kirombe cyari kimaze kuba nk'ikitagicukurwa.

Buri mwaka i Hiroshima bibuka uko uyu mujyi warekuriweho bombe kirimbuzi igahitana abantu barenga 135,000
Insiguro y'isanamu,

Buri mwaka i Hiroshima bibuka uko uyu mujyi warekuriweho bombe kirimbuzi igahitana abantu barenga 135,000

Ku mategeko y'Ububiligi, abakozi b'abanyecongo bakoraga ijoro n'amanywa, bohereza toni ibihumbi za uranium buri kwezi muri Amerika.

"Shinkolobwe yagennye uzaba umutegetsi w'isi mu gihe cyari kigiye kuza, ibintu byose niho byahereye" ni ibivugwa na Mombilo.

Ibi byose byakozwe mu ibanga rikomeye, kugira ngo Ubudage, Ubuyapani n'Ubutaliyani byari byarishyize hamwe ntibimenye ko hariho ikitwa Manhattan Project.

Shinkolobwe yahanaguwe ku ikarita y'isi, ndetse hoherezwa ba maneko kabuhariwe bo kuyobya no gutanga amakuru atari ukuri ku bihabera. Uranium bakayita 'amabuye y'imirimbo' cyangwa 'ibikoresho by'ibanze'. Ijambo Shinkolobwe ntawagombaga kurisohora mu kanwa ke.

Ibanga ryakomeje kubikwa na nyuma y'intambara. Susan Williams ati: "Hakoreshejwe imbaraga ngo byemerwe ko uranium yavuye muri Canada, nk'uburyo bwo kuyobya uwashaka kwibanda kuri Congo".

Avuga ko uwo muhate wari ukomeye ku buryo n'uyu munsi hari abazi ko biriya bisasu kirimbuzi byakozwe na uranium yo muri Canada.

Nyuma y'intambara ariko, Shinkolobwe yahindutse isibaniro ry'intambara y'ubutita (yo guterana ubwoba). Gutera imbere mu gutunganya uranium kwatumye ibihugu by'Iburengerazuba bitagicungira cyane kuri Shinkolobwe. Ariko nanone mu kugira ngo hatagira ikindi gihugu kihageza akarenge, iki kirombe cyagombaga kugenzurwa.

Williams ati: "Nubwo Amerika itari igikeneye uranium ya Shinkolobwe, ntiyifuzaga ko Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Abasoviyeti zihagera."

Ubwo Congo yakuraga Ubwigenge ku Bubiligi mu 1960, iki kirombe cyari gifunze n'inzira ikinjiramo yarafungishijwe isima.

Ibihugu rutura by'iburengerazuba byashakaga ko leta yose ifite amakuru n'ijambo kuri Shinkolobwe ikomeza kuba inshuti yabyo.

Mu ntambara y'ubutita (guerre froide), Amerika yashyigikiye gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu kwa Mobutu Sese Seko kuko yari ikeneye cyane ko Abasoviyeti batagera kuri Shinkolobwe
Insiguro y'isanamu,

Perezida John F Kennedy (ibumoso) na Perezida Mobutu Sese Seko: Mu ntambara y'ubutita (guerre froide), Amerika yashyigikiye gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu kwa Mobutu kuko yari ikeneye cyane ko Abasoviyeti batagera kuri Shinkolobwe

Mombilo ati: "Kuko uranium yari igikenewe, Amerika n'inshuti zayo zikomeye byakoze ibishoboka ngo hatagira ukora kuri Congo. Uwashakaga kuyobora Congo wese bagombaga kumugenzura".

Zoellner avuga ko icy'ingenzi cyane cyari ukwirinda Abakomunisiti, ariyo mpamvu ibyo bihugu bikomeye byifuzaga guhirika leta yari imaze gutorwa ya Patrice Lumumba, bigashyiraho umunyagitugu Mobutu Sese Seko mu 1965 akayobora imyaka myinshi yicaye ku ibanga ryabo.

Abanyecongo bageragezaga gusaba ko imibereho yabo yaba myiza bitwaga abakomunisiti. Williams ati: "Intekerezo, ikizere n'intego z'Abanyecongo ko Congo yaba igihugu kigenga imbere y'ibihugu rutura byahonyorwaga n'igisirikare n'inyungu za politiki z'ibihugu bikomeye byo mu burengerazuba".

Igisebe kitakize

Mobutu yaje kuvanwaho mu 1997, ariko umuzimu wa Shinkolobwe uracyakurikirana DR Congo.

Kuri iki kirombe kuko haboneka umuringa (copper) ukorwamo ibyuma binyurnaye na cobalt, abacukuzi bo muri Congo basubiye muri iki kirombe mu buryo butemewe, bagacukura ahantu hazitiye.

Gusa ikinyejana cya 20 cyagiye kurangira ku kirombe cya Shinkolobwe hari abacukuzi babarirwa ku 15,000 n'imiryango yabo, bacukura byo gushaka imibereho nta kwikingira ubutare bwangiza bw'aya mabuye.

Impanuka byari ibisanzwe: Mu 2004, abacukuzi umunani barapfuye inzira y'ikirombe itengutse. Hari ubwoba ko uranium iri gucuruzwa magendu ku mitwe y'iterabwoba cyangwa ibihugu bitari 'inshuti' byarakaje ibihugu by'iburengerazuba, bituma ingabo za Congo zoherezwa kwirukana abacukuzi muri iki kirombe uwo mwaka.

Hagaragaye inkuru z'abana bavukiye muri ako gace bafite ubusembwa bw'umubiri bukomeye, ariko nta bushakashatsi bwa gihanga na kiganga bwabikozweho.

Nubwo ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe gikungahaye cyane ku mabuye y'agaciro, kuva Union Minière yakivamo mu ntangiriro z'imyaka ya 1960, nta ruganda rw'amabuye y'agaciro rwagicukuye mu buryo bukwiriye kandi bwizewe ngo rugarure umusaruro ku baturage ba Congo.

Nyuma y'impanuka y'ingufu kirimbuzi y'i Fukushima mu 2011, ubushake bwose bwo gucukura uranium yo gukoresha ku nyungu za gisiviri bwarashize.

Zoellner agira ati: "Uranium, yewe no mu mwimerere wayo, ntiyoroshye kuyikoresha. Ubu Shinkolobwe iri mu kaga, ni ikimenyetso cy'ikoreshwa nabi rya uranium mu nyungu za politiki."

Ibanga ryakomeje kubikwa kuri Shinkolobwe (inyandiko nyinshi za leta za Amerika, Ubwongereza n'Ububiligi kuri iyi ngingo zirafunzwe) riracyahishe uruhare rwa Congo mu ntsinzi ya Amerika n'inshuti zayo mu ntambara y'isi, ndetse n'iperereza ryose ryakorwa ku iyangirika ry'ibidukikije n'ingaruka ku buzima bw'abantu kubera iki kirombe.

Reactor B, y'i Hanford, Washington
Insiguro y'isanamu,

Reactor B, iri i Hanford muri Leta ya Washington mu burengerazuba bwa Amerika, niho hatunganyirije uranium yakoze igice cy'ingenzi cy'igisasu Fat Man cyarekuriwe i Nagasaki.

Susan Williams avuga ko ibi bikwiye kurebwa nk'igice cy'amateka maremare yo gusahura Congo byakozwe n'ibihugu by'imbaraga, bwa mbere n'igihugu cyayikolonije hanyuma n'ubukoloni bwaje mu yindi shusho (neoimperialism).

Ati: "Ntabwo Congo yababariye gusa mu ntambara ya kabiri y'isi - aho abantu bakoreshwaga uburetwa mu gucukura uranium, kimwe no gucukura umuringa na cobalt - ahubwo n'imari yishyuwe ivuye muri iki kirombe yahawe Union Minière, ntiyahawe Abanyecongo".

Mombilo nawe ati: "Ingaruka ni iz'ubuzima, politiki, ubukungu, ibintu byinshi, ntabwo tuzi ingaruka mbi zitewe n'imirasire y'ubumara (radiation) kubera iryo banga".

Inkuru z'abana bavukiye muri ako gace bafite ubusembwa bw'umubiri bukomeye ntabwo zakozweho ubushakashatsi ngo hamenyekane neza iki kibazo.

Mombilo ati: "Nari mfite umutangabuhamya wapfuye ubwonko bwe buva mu mutwe kubera 'radiation'. Muri iyi myaka yose, nta n'ibitaro byihariye, nta buvuzi cyangwa ubushakashatsi".

Benshi mu bagizweho ingaruka n'ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe ubu bari guharanira ko bimenyekana kandi bagahabwa indishyi, ariko kumenya ko ukwiriye kubumva - n'ukwiriye kubishyura - bitsikamiwe no kubura amakuru arambuye kuri iki kirombe n'ibyakibereyeho.

Mombilo ati: "Shinkolobwe ni umuvumo kuri Congo."

Gusa yongeraho ko mu gihe kirenga ikinyejana, iki gihugu gikungahaye ku mutungo kamere cyahinduye ibintu byinshi ku isi; umupira (rubber) uvamo amapine watumye imodoka zishoboka, uranium yatumye ingufu kirimbuzi zikoreshwa coltan yubatse za mudasobwa muri iki gihe cy'amakuru, na cobalt iha imbaraga telephone dukoresha ndetse n'imodoka zikoresha umuriro ziri gukorwa ubu.

Mombilo ati: "Isi yacu ikoreshwa n'umutungo kamere wa Congo, ikintu kiza nabivugaho ni uko muri iri koranabuhanga ryose riteye imbere, uba uvuga Congo".

Uruhare rwa Congo mu mibereho ku isi ntabwo warupima. Kwemera ijambo Shinkolobwe kimwe nka Hiroshima na Nagasaki niyo ikwiye kuba intambwe ya mbere mu kwishyura uwo mwenda.

BBC


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